Pregnant rats were flown as small payloads on the Space Shuttle and studied during the flight and for approximately a week after returning to Earth, when they were due to deliver their offspring. Studies of vestibular function in the rat pups were examined as part of the research program. Daily videorecordings were made of the rats' behavior in the Animal Enclosure Modules (AEMS) and in identical compartments maintained in the Orbiter Environment Simulator at the Kennedy Space Center (referred to below as Synchronous Control groups). There was continuous postflight surveillance of the rat dams, including timelapse recordings of labor and delivery. The videorecords provided by crewmembers constitute the best systematic views of spaceflown rats to date, despite the dramatic deterioration of visibility sustained after about the 4th day of flight. We were able to make both qualitative and quantitative observations. Rats were observed to engage in a varied repertoire of species-typical activities within the confines of the AEM. We devised a kinematic coding scheme by which we classified and quantified the movements made by dams in space and in the 1-g control condition. We found that movements involving pitch and yaw were about equivalent in Flight and Synchronous animals. In contrast, Flight dams displayed about seven times more rolling movements than did Control. NASA enabled early access to the AEMs after the Shuttle landed. Rats were intact and healthy. Body weight gain during the 9-11 day flights was equivalent to Controls. Post-flight observations, derived from 24hr/day videorecordings, showed that Flight rats ambulated less, reared fewer times and spent less time bipedal than did controls. Overall, their anti-gravitational responses appeared compromised.